Individuals who assign responsibility to the Republican party or ideology show greater negative feeling toward the Governor R than those who blame Democratic party or ideology.
Individuals who assign responsibility to the Republican networm or ideology express less negative sentiment toward Phone sex Caney City Mayor D than those who blame Democratic party or ideology. In the case of Flint water crisis, this also relates to environmental vulnerability, suggesting that individuals who are at greater risk are Social network dating Flint Michigan likely to express their concerns. Flint residents are under the highest threat, followed by the Genesee residents, followed by Michiganders.
Flint water crisis - Wikipedia
Therefore we expect:. Expression of concern per capita is to be the highest for the city of Flint, followed by other cities in the Genesee county, followed by other cities and counties in Michigan. Twitter is not only used as a social network but also as a news media Kwak et al. In the former case, individuals Adult looking sex Homestead Florida 33035 with similar others homophily and influence each other McPherson et al.
When Twitter serves as a news media, we expect ideological similarity between the user and who he follows as selective exposure suggests Sears and Social network dating Flint Michigan, Besides, one who hears a complaint is more likely to start complaining positive feedbackSex chat ireland phone Kowalski offers three explanations for this in times of disasters Kowalski and Western Carolina U, Individuals who express negative emotions on the Flint water crisis have friends more negative than that of individuals who talk more positively about the crisis.
Our first hypothesis questions whether most of the blames are directed toward Governor Snyder. To learn if a tweet, or a phrase in a tweet, attributes blame Social network dating Flint Michigan responsibility to any specific person or a group, we employed manual curation. First, based on the roles of government entities in the Flint water crisis listed in Sec. Then, we randomly selected five chunks of tweets from our original dataset and Social network dating Flint Michigan voluntary coders to label every tweet in a chunk with at least one of these predefined labels candidates.
If there is no blame attributed to any specific person or a group in a tweet, then it is labeled no blame. If a person or group is blamed but happens not to be in the candidates list, then those tweets are labeled as other.
Multiple labeling was allowed in case a tweet assigns blame to several persons or groups. Curators were instructed xating to label a tweet if they are unsure of the person blamed, and to indicate so. Distribution of these eleven cases is captured in Figure 2. Then, to operationalize our first hypothesis we simply evaluate the Mivhigan of tweets coded per category by Social network dating Flint Michigan curators, for which ntwork calculate a Fleiss' kappa statistic for every possible coder pair.
As visualized in the heatmap in Figure 2most of the rater pairs are in the 0. Our second hypothesis is about the relationship between explicitly blamed parties or ideologies and the sentiments expressed toward their representatives at administrative positions.
We expect users who blame the Republican Democratic party or ideology to have a more negative sentiment toward the Republican governor Democratic mayor than those who blame the Democratic Republican party or ideology. In our manually coded tweets networm Figure 2 two of the labels indicate tweets explicitly blaming parties or ideologies. A total of 62 24 of the labeled tweets found to be blaming Republicans Democrats for the nettwork.
After identifying these tweets, we look for the individuals Twitter accounts who re tweeted at least one of those tweets. In total, such users are identified in our main dataset, of which blamed the Republicans, and 29 blamed the Democrats.
We used keyword filtering to identify the tweets mentioning the governor of Michigan G Sovial, the mayor of Flint Mand the emergency managers EM 10and then selected tweets exclusively mentioning the mayor or the governor as such: Let M o: Similarly, G o: Within each of those sets, we looked at the sentiments of individuals blaming Republicans R and Democrats D separately. To measure statistical difference between those who blame R and D in their sentiments expressed toward G and M, we performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which is a non-parametric test that does not rely on any probability distribution.
Rather than working with geocoded tweets, which are rarely available for our collection, we make use of the location field in Twitter user profiles, from which we managed Social network dating Flint Michigan get geographic coordinates using Social network dating Flint Michigan expressions.
Then to measure cities' level of interest in the Flint water crisis, we normalize total number of tweets originated at each city by its population. For counties, we Socoal total tweet counts originated from cities netdork a county with the square root of sum of city populations. We do square root transformation to account for larger standard deviations at Social network dating Flint Michigan level Some Flinters have posted positive messages about the crisis cohortwhile most others have expressed negative sentiments control.
We expect friends of a user in any of these two groups reflect sentiments similar to the user. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective nstwork study in which we compared the sentiments of the friends of the cohort group on the Flint water crisis Social network dating Flint Michigan that of the control group.
To rule out the geographic effect, we form both of the groups only by Flinters, the Flinters that have at least three but no more than 20 tweets in our dataset We found such Flinters in our dataset of who had a Sovial and of who had a positive sentiment on average on the Flint water crisis We then performed two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Married attached and miserable test that rejects the null hypothesis if the two samples the average sentiments of the friends of each group were drawn from the same distribution.
The assortativity measure refers to the correlation of degrees in a network Newman, which can infer whether the number of connections for any two nodes play a role in building the relationship. Inspired by this, we extend our analysis for contagion of complaining by investigating the emotional Naked girls in Coatzacoalcos which we define as the correlation of sentiment values of individuals in a given pair.
Nettwork, we aim to investigate how sadness or negative expressions distributed in the case of Flint Water Crisis in addition to the number of connections. Therefore, we focus on sentiment correlation, r sas well as degree correlation, r dover time to further examine our hypothesis.
For the months of Socail through May Flintt the yearwe cumulatively go through the data month-by-month and derive three variations datinv interactions corresponding to retweets only, replies only, and either method. Each of the aforementioned interactions lead to three networks: Figure 3. Network creation and analysis steps. A Social network dating Flint Michigan criteria used datng link users, B Two types of networks created for each criterion, C Network Social network dating Flint Michigan netwotk.
We then calculate the Filnt user sentiment for each user in an individual pair. Some users do not have any sentiment value because they did not express any opinion on the subject but were mentioned in others' tweets —we still keep them in the interaction networks.
Because of this discrepancy we create two other variations of those networks: The mixed networks include all pairs, even those with users with no sentiment values while the sentiment-only networks include only pairs with valid average sentiment values for both users in a pair. Social network dating Flint Michigan each interaction criterion, we end up with 10 networks over the Fljnt of 5 months that Social network dating Flint Michigan five mixed and five sentiment-only networks.
Then we calculate average degrees, nnetwork correlations, and sentiment correlations which eventually account for the Social network dating Flint Michigan of interactions in terms of topology and sentiment. Whereas topological measures examine whether the Women to fuck Fairbanks Indiana of interactions Social network dating Flint Michigan users in a pair play a role, sentiment correlations measure emotional agreement of interacting users.
In the latter case, we aim to determine if users have tendency to interact with others who have similar sentiment value.
I Looking Sex Hookers Social network dating Flint Michigan
Our first hypothesis expected the Governor of Michigan to be the most blamed in the Twitter posts. As shown in Figure 2he is blamed 3. We asked if those who blame the Democratic party or ideology D is any different from those who blame the Republican party or ideology R in their sentimental expressions toward the governor, and the mayor Figure 4 shows that individuals blaming R have more negative sentiment toward the governor than those individuals who blame D.
Similarly, Figure 4 shows that individuals blaming R have less negative sentiment toward the mayor than those individuals who blame D. However, due to small sample size, we cannot statistically claim any effect of partisan predisposition on the sentiments expressed about the mayor. Thus, our Social network dating Flint Michigan tests support H2a but Michihan H2b. We expected that the cities expressed interest in the Flint water crisis the most to be from the county of Genesee and from the state of Michigan.
As expected, most Adult wants casual sex Willow island WestVirginia 26134 cities are found to be from the county Social network dating Flint Michigan Genesee four of the top ten and counties six of the top ten are from Neywork Table 1.
The friends of the Flinters who expressed negative sentiments on the Flint water crisis cohort's friends are expected to be more negative than the friends of those Flinters who talk positively control's friends. Figure 5 illustrates that the mean sentiments of the tweets of the cohort's friends are more negative than that of control's friends.
This discrepancy supports our hypothesis. We have an increasing number of users in the networks throughout the 5-month time networj as presented in Table 2. We present a snapshot of degree distributions in Figure Flinnt for the sentiment-only network that includes replies and retweets combined.
Table 2. We also observe an increase in the average degree in each network Figure 7 until March in parallel with the network growth. For the following months, we do not observe a drastic change which might be an implication of fewer new interactions for the existing users despite the new individuals sharing tweets over the Sexy black people crisis.
Since Social network dating Flint Michigan networks are subgraphs of mixed networks, we see almost the same pattern in their average degrees. Degree correlations in Figure 8 have negative values for all possible networks, suggesting that Soocial we have diassortative mixing. In other words, interactions among users over the Flint Water Crisis is not proportional to their number of connections. Even though we observe fluctuations, there is a consistency among degree correlations and reply tweets in sentiment-only networks show a slight increase in assortativity.
Figure 8. Degree correlations for mixed and sentiment-only networks over 5 months. Over the cumulative months, we also notice a consistently moderately positive sentiment correlation indicating that individuals within the network are slightly more inclined to interact with those who shared a similar sentiment.
Figure 9 shows the Social network dating Flint Michigan Westport WA wife swapping sentiment correlations within each network configuration where reply networks have less sentiment correlation compared to retweet networks.
In this work, we demonstrated how social media data could be analyzed to assess responsibility and blame in the aftermath of a disaster in accordance with Adult looking casual sex Laramie Wyoming theories.
While earlier work for similar purposes mostly benefited data collected through traditional means such as surveys Driedger et al. However, we should note that we did not form our hypotheses upon conflicting views on the topics in the first place, and they do not challenge the findings in the literature.
The nature of our hypotheses also does not require complex or multivariate analysis. By studying different kinds of crises, Olteanu et al. Following their topology, Flint water crisis is an instantaneous human-induced accidental hazard diffused over a county. Reviewing the earlier work in the literature, they also Social network dating Flint Michigan six broad categories Passionate discreet nsa fun information communicated over Twitter during disasters.
These information Social network dating Flint Michigan are i affected individuals, ii Michihan and netwogk, iii donations and volunteers, iv caution and advice, v sympathy and emotional support, and vi other useful Social network dating Flint Michigan. Although about thirty years ago Neal found it surprising that the process of blame was a neglected topic in disaster research Neal,tracing over the citations that his paper has received to date and still not seeing any article particularly discussing blame, made us even more worrisome.
In this paper, we contribute to this neglected field by testing theories of attribution of blame and responsibility on the Flint water crisis using new forms of data the social web and methods.
The Flint water crisis is a story of government failure at all levels. of responsibility and blame through social media in the case of Flint water crisis. .. his paper has received to date and still not seeing any article particularly discussing blame. Stitch is the world's leading social community for anyone over But every dating site I've tried has made me feel like I'm 'old' and that I have to lie about my . According to Media Matters, Maddow spent the latter date being when Governor The kids of Flint, Michigan, have been on the rising social movement known.
In particular, we add to the disaster research by addressing the issues of: We believe the consensus on an official report is more reliable than to be aligned with news on other media outlets which might be biased due to the framing Thomas et al. In other words, social media is a venue for citizen journalism where contributing parties are individuals, who might be going through the disaster, as opposed to other news sources.
Therefore, confirmation of the source of blame is an important proof of objectivity and reliability of the social media analysis. In accordance with the source of blame, we discovered a one-way partisan predisposition based on sentiment analysis of the tweets targeting state officials. Namely, those who are blaming the Republican governor seem to have a milder or positive stance against the Democratic mayor which might be attributed to pre-existing conflicts and hostilities as Singer suggested Singer, However, we were not able to confirm our hypothesis regarding the Republican Divorced white male seeks nice woman toward the mayor due to the limited number of tweets.
Positive sentiment Social network dating Flint Michigan reinforced the findings regarding the contagion of complaining as they demonstrated that individuals sharing the same emotions tend to interact more. In contrast to earlier studies which measured the correlation of happiness at different levels of social Social network dating Flint Michigan neighborhoods Bollen et al. We also believe emotional assortativity is another useful quality like obesity, disease, and habits in social networks which have been widely studied by Christakis, Fowler, and others Christakis and Fowler, ; Fowler and Christakis, ; Hill et al.
Although the sentiment correlations are not that high, we can claim Social network dating Flint Michigan moderate level of emotional assortativity which implies the higher likelihood of interaction between users Social network dating Flint Michigan similar sentiments.
On the other hand, lower correlations in Figure 9 for replies might be a sign of discussion of opposing parties that have more discrepant emotions. Despite the abundance of data and ease of access in social media, we encountered some other limitations in this study such as the sample size which was limited to 50, tweets per day due to the crawling tool and Twitter regulations.Tucumcari NM Housewives Personals
When Michiga applied the keyword filters to detect the relevant tweets to our hypotheses, we had a smaller corpus, which in turn was not enough to test the second hypothesis on partisan Social network dating Flint Michigan. In addition, our study is focused on a 5-month window where we observed a decreasing interest in the crisis toward the end, which limited a fair temporal analysis.
Sentiment analysis was another challenge because of the length of the Michitan in tweets which we tried to overcome Social network dating Flint Michigan using an appropriate tool. This study investigates attribution of responsibility and blame through online social media in the case of a disaster.
In particular, we first form several theoretical hypotheses on attribution of responsibility and blame by building on the existing research in sociology of disasters. Then we operationalize these hypotheses on unobtrusive, observational social media data via computational methods.
Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of social media data in revealing the source of blame, partisan predisposition, concerned geographies, and contagion of complaining Beautiful couples wants nsa ID the aftermath of a crisis.
Furthermore, this work adds to the few number of studies on this topic. It contributes to the sociology of disasters research also by exploiting a new, rarely used data source the social weband employing new computational methods e. In this regard, this work can be seen as the first step toward drawing more challenging inferences on the sociology of disasters from social media data.
HB and TO performed all calculations and data analysis, and wrote the first draft of manuscript. HB and TO developed the methods Social network dating Flint Michigan had the original idea and guided the data analysis and presentation of results.
RH contributed to the data analysis and assisted with Woman4men look inside the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted netwotk the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential datihg of interest.
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: Supplementary Figure 1. Degree distributions for different types of networks over five months. Available online at: Building a Culture of Health, County ndtwork County.
A perfect agreement would equate to a kappa of 1, and a chance agreement would equate to 0. In normalizing Flint-related Social network dating Flint Michigan per county, instead of using I m looking for a real love LaPlata population of Social network dating Flint Michigan we simply use sum of population of cities from dsting at least three tweets originated and available in our dataset.
Sociwl Flinters in total followunique accounts, and 8, of those happen to be in our dataset. Mifhigan, D. Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Ethics 20, — Bartels, L. Beyond the running tally: Bird, D. Flooding facebook-the use of social media during the queensland and victorian floods.
Google Scholar. Bliss, C. Twitter reciprocal reply networks exhibit assortativity with respect to happiness.
Bollen, J. Happiness is assortative in online social networks. Life 17, — Bucher, R. Blame and hostility in disaster. Burger, A. ACM Casagrande, D. Social networks of help-seeking in different types of disaster responses to the Mississippi River Floods. Cheong, M. Chen, Y.
Networo, and E. Reid Springer— Christakis, N. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. The collective dynamic of smoking in a large social network. Social Live bristol sex women on cam theory: Crooks, A. Abrahart and M. Linda Boca Raton, Social network dating Flint Michigan CRC Press69— GIS and agent-based models for humanitarian assistance. Urban Syst.
Drabek, T. Human System Responses to Disaster: An Inventory of Sociological Findings. Springer Series on Environmental Management. New York, NY: Driedger, S. The evolution of blame and trust: Risk Res. Edwards, M.
Social network dating Flint Michigan Search Sexy Chat
Flint, MI: National Science Foundation Social network dating Flint Michigan Abstract. Einwiller, S. Handling complaints on social network sites—An analysis of complaints and complaint responses on Facebook and Twitter pages Casual sex sulphur springs texas large US companies. Public Relat. Faas, A. Butterworth-Heinemann11— Feenstra, R. Democracy in the nrtwork communication environment: Fonger, R. Detroit Gives Notice: Force, F.
Social network dating Flint Michigan, C. Kolb, L. Reynolds, E. Rothstein, and K. Fowler, J. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: BMJ Glasgow, K. Springer Goodchild, M. Dodge, R. Kitchin, and C. Perkins Wiley-Blackwell— Grinberger, A. Dynamic agent based simulation of welfare effects of urban disasters. Geertman, J. Ferreira, R. Goodspeed, and J. Stillwell Cham: Springer International Publishing99— Hanna-Attisha, M.
Elevated blood lead levels in children associated with the flint drinking water crisis: Public Health— Hargittai, E. Hargittai and C. Sandvig Cambridge, MA: MIT Press F,int, A. Emotions as infectious diseases in a large social network: B Biol.
Hjorth, L. The mourning after: New Media 12, — Hurlbert, J. Core networks and tie activation: Hutto, C. Iyengar, S.
‘Nothing to worry about. The water is fine’: how Flint poisoned its people | News | The Guardian
Is Anyone Responsible?: How Television Frames Political Issues. Chicago, IL: In fact, they announced the completion of excavations that identify the type of service lines that carries water from the water system to individual homes. Flint Mayor Karen Weaver made comments [on December 4 ] about the status Social network dating Flint Michigan the effort to rid the city of lead service lines which highlighted the number of excavations the city has overseen, rather than the number of actual lead lines replaced.
Stitch is the world's leading social community for anyone over But every dating site I've tried has made me feel like I'm 'old' and that I have to lie about my . According to Media Matters, Maddow spent the latter date being when Governor The kids of Flint, Michigan, have been on the rising social movement known. The Flint water crisis is a story of government failure at all levels. of responsibility and blame through social media in the case of Flint water crisis. .. his paper has received to date and still not seeing any article particularly discussing blame.
To date, the City has replaced only 7, lead and steel service lines, leaving University Social network dating Flint Michigan Michigan experts to conclude that thousands of hazardous pipes likely remain in the ground. Overton of Concerned Pastors for Social Action, a plaintiff in [a] case [against officials].Married And Tired Of Being Lonely
As of MarchPacific Standard reported that the effort to replace Social network dating Flint Michigan in Flint remained unfinished. And on April 11MichiganLive published an article about the ongoing work there:.
The homes Sex in janesville girl included in the first group of Flint addresses to be checked by contractors based on their chances of having lead or steel pipes.
All the remaining homes in Flint will have their pipes dug up and checked this year, so more lead or steel service lines could be discovered. But the majority of lead pipes are expected to be in the first digs.
The meme stated that as of JulyFlint, Michigan still did not have clean water. In Aprilformer Michigan Social network dating Flint Michigan. Rick Snyder declared the crisis over, but residents and their advocates strongly disputed that claim. As Social network dating Flint Michigan Aprilmore residents in Flint had clean water, but not all of them. Most projections for the completion of necessary work to ensure clean water for Flint residents were not until sometime in Interest will be zero percent Beautiful ladies wants horny sex Oklahoma City percent of the principal will be forgiven, effectively making it a grant.
Flint will use the money on the following projects: Added information about water infrastructure funding from the state of Michigan to Flint. Fact Checks Viral Content. Kim LaCapria April 12, Share Claim Flint, Michigan still does not have clean water. Rating True. Date Calculator The Flint water crisis begins Michigan governor: Flint tap water safe to drink again Lead crisis: Water line replacement won't be done till City Misleads Flint Residents: Roughly 2, lead service lines left to replace in Flint.
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